Autor Tópico: Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias  (Lida 1546 vezes)

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Offline _tiago

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Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Online: 27 de Março de 2012, 12:13:08 »
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The New York Times

Your Brain on Fiction
AMID the squawks and pings of our digital devices, the old-fashioned virtues of reading novels can seem faded, even futile. But new support for the value of fiction is arriving from an unexpected quarter: neuroscience.

Brain scans are revealing what happens in our heads when we read a detailed description, an evocative metaphor or an emotional exchange between characters. Stories, this research is showing, stimulate the brain and even change how we act in life.

Researchers have long known that the “classical” language regions, like Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area, are involved in how the brain interprets written words. What scientists have come to realize in the last few years is that narratives activate many other parts of our brains as well, suggesting why the experience of reading can feel so alive. Words like “lavender,” “cinnamon” and “soap,” for example, elicit a response not only from the language-processing areas of our brains, but also those devoted to dealing with smells.

In a 2006 study published in the journal NeuroImage, researchers in Spain asked participants to read words with strong odor associations, along with neutral words, while their brains were being scanned by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine. When subjects looked at the Spanish words for “perfume” and “coffee,” their primary olfactory cortex lit up; when they saw the words that mean “chair” and “key,” this region remained dark. The way the brain handles metaphors has also received extensive study; some scientists have contended that figures of speech like “a rough day” are so familiar that they are treated simply as words and no more. Last month, however, a team of researchers from Emory University reported in Brain & Language that when subjects in their laboratory read a metaphor involving texture, the sensory cortex, responsible for perceiving texture through touch, became active. Metaphors like “The singer had a velvet voice” and “He had leathery hands” roused the sensory cortex, while phrases matched for meaning, like “The singer had a pleasing voice” and “He had strong hands,” did not.

fonte: Continua...

« Última modificação: 27 de Março de 2012, 12:15:37 por _tiago »

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #1 Online: 27 de Março de 2012, 21:34:16 »
Só coloquei aqui por que é bizarro. Nem li.

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Math Formula May Explain Why Serial Killers Kill
Researchers have discovered that the seemingly erratic behavior of the "Rostov Ripper," a prolific serial killer active in the 1980s, conformed to the same mathematical pattern obeyed by earthquakes, avalanches, stock market crashes and many other sporadic events. The finding suggests an explanation for why serial killers kill.

Mikhail Simkin and Vwani Roychowdhury, electrical engineers at the University of California, Los Angeles, modeled the behavior of Andrei Chikatilo, a gruesome murderer who took the lives of 53 people in Rostov, Russia between 1978 and 1990. Though Chikatilo sometimes went nearly three years without committing murder, on other occasions, he went just three days. The researchers found that the seemingly random spacing of his murders followed a mathematical distribution known as a power law.

When the number of days between Chikatilo's murders is plotted against the number of times he waited that number of days, the relationship forms a near-straight line on a type of graph called a log-log plot. It's the same result scientists get when they plot the magnitude of earthquakes against the number of times each magnitude has occurred — and the same goes for a variety of natural phenomena. The power law outcome suggests that there was an underlying natural process driving the serial killer's behavior.

Simkin and Roychowdhury hypothesize that it's the same type of effect that has also been found to cause epileptics to have seizures. The psychotic effects that lead a serial killer to commit murder "arise from simultaneous firing of large number of neurons in the brain," they wrote. The paper, a preprint of which is available on the arXiv, has been submitted to Biology Letters.
(continua...)

A fonte, estranha fonte: http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/2080-serial-killer-math-power-law.html

Offline Geotecton

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #2 Online: 27 de Março de 2012, 23:07:03 »
Estou prevendo mais 40 páginas de discussão entre o Buck, o Iabadabadu e o Cientista.  :P
Foto USGS

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #3 Online: 15 de Abril de 2012, 11:21:58 »
Priming é o termo em inglês. Um exemplo de como funciona retirado das página 11 do livro You Are Not So Smart que junta um tanto de artigos relacionados:

Três grupos de estudantes tinham que juntar palavras ou formar frases. Um grupo juntava palavras "agressivas", um outro "educadas" e o de controle, juntava palavras "neutras". Terminada essa fase, eles deveriam receber uma outra tarefa que estava com um pesquisador que os ignorava por 10 minutos enquanto interagia com um ator.
O grupo de palavras educadas esperava 9 minutos em média antes de interromper. O de controle 8 e o de palavras agressivas nem 5 minutos. Quando questionados sobro o motivo de terem interrompido o pesquisar que lhes daria a outra tarefa, eles não tinham a menor idéia do porquê pouco esperaram ou muito esperaram.

A idéia do priming é que não temos a menor idéia do que nos faz agir da maneira que agimos quando agimos. O que nos influencia num determinado momento pode ser, por exemplo, palavras agressivas num quebra-cabeças.

O estudo inteiro está no Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process 95, 83-96, (2004).

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #4 Online: 24 de Janeiro de 2013, 17:19:08 »
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Older Brain Is Willing, but Too Full
Learning becomes more difficult as we age not because we have trouble absorbing new information, but because we fail to forget the old stuff, researchers say.
Continua

Fonte: http://www.nytimes.com/

Offline Wowbagger, o Infinitamente Prolongado

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #5 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 11:41:28 »
http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/cidades,cao-tratado-com-celulas-tronco-volta-a-andar,1027388,0.htm

Eu sei de uma proprietária que conseguiu reverter as sequêlas neurológicas de um cão que teve cinomose. A mulher contrariou as recomendações do veterinário e com fisioterapia, Reike (ou passes, não sei) e CARINHO/ATENÇÃO conseguiu usar a plasticidade cerebral em favor do cão.

Pessoa excepcional.


Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #6 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 18:10:45 »
Estou prevendo mais 40 páginas de discussão entre o Buck, o Iabadabadu e o Cientista.  :P

De mim só vai ouvir que acho improvável que haja alguma relação causal siginficativa aí. O Cientista provavelmente diria a mesma coisa, mas tendo que dividir em duas mensagens ou tirar um pouco do que havia escrito originalmente por estourar o limite de caracteres. E obviamente colocando a coisa em termos de "máquina humana", e discorrendo sobre "como essas tentatívas pífias de filósofos que não sabem o que é a verdadeira Ciência são muito engraçadas", onde provavelmente não deixará de colocar no mesmo saco outras coisas bem mais razoáveis, se nos dermos ao trabalho de ler.

O perigo estaria em se o Iabadabadu começar com uns misticismos mentais, eu ser novamente tentado a dizer que embora não se tenha capacidade de previsão nem conhecimento de todos os pormenores ou até mesmo fundamentos, "comportamento" apenas não é tanto um problema. Aí então o Cientista volta e diz que sou também um tipo de crente, tapeado pela Grande Ilusão, etc, e então eu talvez pudesse cair no mesmo erro de tentar encontrar sentido nos posts dele e argumentar. Mas acho que quando ele dizia que o "eu não existo", na verdade isso não é uma afirmação filosófica, mas uma confissão escondida de que na verdade ele usa um gerador de texto adaptado do gerador de Kant. Meio como aquelas coisas de inimigos do Batman que, para deixar a coisa mais divertida, gostam de deixar pistas meio veladas de propósito. Então não caio mais nessa. E o Agnóstico pode dizer que existe livre-arbítrio a vontade, que também nem vou postar um "a".

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #7 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 18:47:38 »
 :lol:

Offline Moro

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #8 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 19:13:02 »
Livre arbítrio existe, é claro. :hihi:
“If an ideology is peaceful, we will see its extremists and literalists as the most peaceful people on earth, that's called common sense.”

Faisal Saeed Al Mutar


"To claim that someone is not motivated by what they say is motivating them, means you know what motivates them better than they do."

Peter Boghossian

Sacred cows make the best hamburgers

I'm not convinced that faith can move mountains, but I've seen what it can do to skyscrapers."  --William Gascoyne

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #9 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 19:56:03 »
Livre arbítrio existe, é claro. :hihi:
Sim, e jamais se esqueça que foi você quem me convenceu disto!

Offline Moro

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #10 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 20:36:55 »
Bom, se for sério, bem vindo ao grupo dos certos :biglol:

Se não, porra coloca um smile.. ou um "só que não" depois
“If an ideology is peaceful, we will see its extremists and literalists as the most peaceful people on earth, that's called common sense.”

Faisal Saeed Al Mutar


"To claim that someone is not motivated by what they say is motivating them, means you know what motivates them better than they do."

Peter Boghossian

Sacred cows make the best hamburgers

I'm not convinced that faith can move mountains, but I've seen what it can do to skyscrapers."  --William Gascoyne

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #11 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 20:48:48 »
Bom, se for sério, bem vindo ao grupo dos certos :biglol:

Só que não!  :hihi:

Offline Moro

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #12 Online: 01 de Maio de 2013, 21:09:49 »
 :biglol:
“If an ideology is peaceful, we will see its extremists and literalists as the most peaceful people on earth, that's called common sense.”

Faisal Saeed Al Mutar


"To claim that someone is not motivated by what they say is motivating them, means you know what motivates them better than they do."

Peter Boghossian

Sacred cows make the best hamburgers

I'm not convinced that faith can move mountains, but I've seen what it can do to skyscrapers."  --William Gascoyne

Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #13 Online: 17 de Agosto de 2013, 11:52:49 »
This creepy psychological technique will sabotage anyone's self-esteem

Want to change someone's mind while pretending to encourage them? All you need to do is set a high standard for something and give them a little time. Even if they reach your standards, they've already self-sabotaged.

Welcome to another little guide to practical evil. Today, we'll show you how the "availability heuristic" can be used to destroy someone's life. A heuristic is a sort of mental rule of thumb that people use when they don't have time or desire to do exhaustive research. The availability heuristic shows that, lacking complete information, people will form an opinion based on information that comes easily to mind. For example, if there are a lot of financial scandals making headlines, people will say that there's an uptick of white-collar crime, even if the overall rate is the same. Ask if there are more words that have "w" as the first letter or "h" as the second letter, they'll say there are more words with w as the first letter because we're better at retrieving words based on their first letter than their second letter. It's the mental difficulty, or ease, that determines their opinion.

Naturally, psychologists figured out a way to turn this heuristic to evil. A team led by psychologist Norbert Schwarz decided to crush people's self-confidence by asking them to list a few example of themselves being assertive, and then asking them to rate whether or not they were an assertive person. It turned out the difference in whether a person thought they were assertive or passive lay in the amount of examples requested of them. Those who were asked to list six examples did so easily and generally thought they were assertive. Those who were asked to list twelve examples had to struggle, but eventually came up with twelve examples. They had twice the number of reasons to think of themselves as assertive, and but they considered themselves relatively meek. It wasn't the number of examples that they based their self-estimate on, it was the struggle to think of examples.

It turns out that this mind trickery works when people are evaluating anything. Ask a person to think of a lot of reasons to change jobs, propose to their significant other, or buy a house. Although they'll complete the list, they'll be less likely to think it's a good idea than someone who came up with only a few reasons but came up with them easily. People will think that if they have that much trouble thinking up reasons, it can't be a good idea. And bingo - instant villainous mind control.

Fonte: http://io9.com/this-creepy-psychological-technique-will-sabotage-anyon-1152810045

Availability heuristic: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Availability_heuristic

Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #14 Online: 18 de Agosto de 2013, 17:07:52 »
Isso é psicologia, não neurociência. Usuário suspenso por 15 dias por desvirtuar o próprio tópico. Tópico trancado.


Tenho vaga lembrança de ter lido algo sobre como esse princípio é até capaz de sabotar relacionamentos. Peça para as pessoas darem 3 ou 12 qualidades boas da relação ou cônjuje, e você então influenciou as probabilidades da durabilidade da relação de acordo.


Offline _tiago

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #15 Online: 18 de Agosto de 2013, 18:37:55 »
Sim, psicologia. Mas foi só pra não pregar a notícia em qualquer lugar. Daí me ocorreu este. :P

Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #16 Online: 15 de Setembro de 2013, 07:54:31 »
Vou usar também como "tópico unificado para coisas relacionadas à mente e cérebro".


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Critical incident stress management (CISM) is an adaptive, short-term psychological helping-process that focuses solely on an immediate and identifiable problem. It can include pre-incident preparedness to acute crisis management to post-crisis follow-up. Its purpose is to enable people to return to their daily routine more quickly and with less likelihood of experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder.[1] More recent studies, however, call the efficacy of CISM into question, and suggest that it may in fact be harmful.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

[...]
Criticism

A number of studies have shown that CISM has little effect, or that it actually worsens the trauma symptoms.[14] Several meta-analyses in the medical literature either find no preventative benefit of CISM,[2][3][4] or negative impact for those debriefed.[5][6][7][8] On the other hand, Jacobs, Horne-Moyer and Jones [15] argue that CISM has beneficial effects when conducted with emergency services personnel, but does not work or does more harm than good with accident victims.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_incident_stress_management#Criticism


A suposição desse procedimento/tipo de coisa é mais ou menos a de que seria bom a pessoa "desabafar" sobre algo potencialmente traumático pelo qual passou, e ser "consolada" por algum tipo de terapeuta, mas aparentemente esse resultado é pior do que a pessoa não fazer absolutamente nada, deixar para lá, seguir a vida sem achar que precisa "lidar" com o ocorrido. Especialmente nessa situação imediatamene após a ocorrência, agora acreditam que pode ter o efeito de "congelar" a memória e reforçar um trauma.

É curioso como uma série de coisas de psicologia vão evoluindo, em termos de comprovação ou refutação empírica, mas parece que não é posto em prática. Como métodos mais eficientes de tratamento diversos e também coisas como interrogatórios de testemunhas em questões policiais, e programas sociais ou educativos. É pior até do que a situação de aprovação de medicamentos, com poucos resultados negativos publicados; vi recentemente a analogia de que é praticamente como se medicamentos fossem aprovados e distribuidos só com uma base teórica/hipotética da sua atuação.



Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #19 Online: 09 de Outubro de 2013, 19:52:35 »
Dan Ariely conduziu um experimento onde, era oferecido a pessoas experimentarem cerveja (de umas duas marcas para dar representatividade às preferências) misturada com vinagre balsâmico, e pura. Depois disso, poderiam beber mais um copo da que preferissem.

Se as pessoas sabiam que a mistura era vinagre balsâmico, preferiam a cerveja pura (70%). Sem falar da mistura de vinagre balsâmico, as pessoas tendiam a preferir a cerveja com vinagre (59%).  Experimentando, e então sendo informados da mistura, a preferência por ela cai para 52%.

A suposição é de que a expectativa consciente da mistura com vinagre balsâmico, não geralmente associado a cerveja, acabe influenciando na avaliação do sabor pela pessoa, ou talvez até na percepção do sabor em si.

http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/brainiac/2007/01/im_a_sucker_for.html

Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #20 Online: 24 de Outubro de 2013, 20:01:35 »
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Treating Stress, Speech Disorders With Music

More and more hospitals and clinics now offer music therapy as a supplementary treatment for everything from anxiety to Alzheimer’s, but its efficacy varies for different conditions. Neurologist Oliver Sacks and several music therapists discuss the science and practice of music therapy.
Produced by SciFri Staff

GUESTS

Oliver Sacks
Professor, Neurology and Psychiatry

Columbia University Medical Center

New York, New York
Concetta “Connie” Tomaino
Executive Director and Co-Founder, Institute for Music and Neurologic Function

Beth Abraham Family of Health Services

Bronx, New York
Joke Bradt
Associate Professor, Creative Arts Therapies Department

Drexel University

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Andrew Rossetti
Music Therapist, Radiation Oncology

Louis Armstrong Center for Music & Medicine
Beth Israel Medical Center



http://www.npr.org/2011/12/16/143847285/treating-stress-speech-disorders-with-music


Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #21 Online: 20 de Junho de 2015, 18:17:58 »




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Shock health warnings backfire

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/352150.stm
Health promotion campaigns which use shock tactics to discourage people from harmful behaviour actually have the opposite effect, researchers have said.

[...] The researchers identified three types of unwanted effect:

   
  • Warning fatigue - This is when people become desensitised to health messages and pay no attention whatsoever
  • Risk factor phobia - Some people become increasingly fearful about the hazards posed by their lifestyle and diet, often over-reacting
  • Forbidden fruit effect - A deliberate defiance of authoritarian health warnings. For instance, warnings about the dangers of eating beef on the bone resulted in a rush for just such products before they were banned by the government

    [...]
Citar
http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/video/do-scare-tactics-work-a-meta-analytic-test-of-fear-appeal-theories.html

[...]

We found a positive, linear effect of fear on overall intentions/behavior and a positive effect of including an efficacy message. Fear appeals are also more effective for one-time-only behaviors (e.g., screenings) vs. repeated behaviors (e.g., dieting), and for detection behaviors (e.g., screenings) vs. prevention/promotion behaviors (e.g., vaccines), as predicted by Rothman and Salovey’s theory of gain- and loss-framed messages. Finally, as predicted based on Regulatory Focus Theory, fear was more effective in prevention-focused populations. Fear was significantly more effective in East Asian (vs. Western) countries, in all-female (vs. all-male) samples, and in samples with higher proportions of Asian or female participants.



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https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/changepower/201204/can-willpower-alone-help-you-stick-weight-loss-plan

[...] But Deutschman quotes Dr. Edward Miller, CEO of the hospital at the Johns Hopkins University Medical School.: “If you look at people after coronary-artery bypass grafting two years later, ninety percent of them have not changed their lifestyle,” Miller said. “And that’s been studied over and over again... Even though they know they have a very bad disease and they know they should change their lifestyle, for whatever reason, they can’t.”

Why can’t they?  Well, “healthy eating” is a complex habit change, involving many moving parts.  People need specific information, not just about mealtime planning, portion control, and healthy foods, but also about handling cravings and bouncing back from lapses, among other things.  “Fear of death,” while seemingly a powerful motivator, might be so scary that some patients, ironically, might turn to their favorite comfort foods to cope. Finally, once patients leave the hospital, they find themselves back in the environments that caused the over-eating in the first place.

By contrast, Deutschman takes a look at people with heart disease who entered a program to help them.  They added outside support—what I call changepower—to their willpower.  (In this case, they used Dean Ornish’s program.)  After 3 years, 77% of these patients had maintained healthy lifestyle changes. [...]

Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #22 Online: 29 de Janeiro de 2017, 22:10:26 »
Está mais para psicologia do que neurociência, sobre a interação das duas:


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Deconstructing the seductive allure of neuroscience explanations

Weisberg DS, Keil FC, Goodstein J, Rawson E, Gray JR.
Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 10, No. 5,
September 2015, pp. 429–441

Abstract

Explanations of psychological phenomena seem to generate more public interest when they contain neuroscientific information. Even irrelevant neuroscience information in an explanation of a psychological phenomenon may interfere with people's abilities to critically consider the underlying logic of this explanation. We tested this hypothesis by giving naïve adults, students in a neuroscience course, and neuroscience experts brief descriptions of psychological phenomena followed by one of four types of explanation, according to a 2 (good explanation vs. bad explanation) x 2 (without neuroscience vs. with neuroscience) design. Crucially, the neuroscience information was irrelevant to the logic of the explanation, as confirmed by the expert subjects. Subjects in all three groups judged good explanations as more satisfying than bad ones. But subjects in the two nonexpert groups additionally judged that explanations with logically irrelevant neuroscience information were more satisfying than explanations without. The neuroscience information had a particularly striking effect on nonexperts' judgments of bad explanations, masking otherwise salient problems in these explanations.

http://journal.sjdm.org/15/15731a/jdm15731a.pdf

Offline Gigaview

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #23 Online: 29 de Janeiro de 2017, 22:53:13 »
Parece que ocorre a mesma coisa com fenômenos psicológicos explicados à luz da lógica da psicanálise. Acho que não importa se são usadas informações irrelevantes da neurociência ou a arquitetura pseudocientífica da psicanálise, parece que o que importa é apenas a lógica que faz a explicação fazer sentido mesmo sem entrar num juízo de valor ou se ela é verdadeira ou falsa. Poderia acreditar que talvez exista uma explicação convincente para fenômenos psicológicos baseada na acupuntura, só porque existe uma lógica onde a explicação possa fazer sentido e  que as explicações sejam mais convincentes do outras onde não exista uma percepção de uma lógica clara.
« Última modificação: 30 de Janeiro de 2017, 00:13:29 por Gigaview »

Offline Buckaroo Banzai

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Re:Neurociência – Notícias Aleatórias
« Resposta #24 Online: 30 de Janeiro de 2017, 14:40:31 »
O mesmo deve ocorrer com explicações de psicologia evolutiva, mesmo que não seja fundamentalmente equiparável à psicanálise.

Só a parte mais empírica sozinha ficando sempre mais fraca, do que se acompanhada de uma espécie de "explicação".

 

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